Bacteria constitute a large territory of prokaryotic microorganisms. Generally they are few micrometers long, have a variety of shapes, ranging from sphere to spirals and rods. Bacteria inhabit water, soil, radioactive waste, acidic hot springs and the deep portions of crust of Earth. They are reviled for various diseases in humans. Daily we get up, eat breakfast, do different works, hold different items and contaminate ourselves with deadliest item known as bacteria. Some of bacterial infections are extremely dangerous and can be lethal. So, preventing measures should be taken in order to prevent such infections. Here we provide you the list of top 10 most dangerous bacterial infections, read this article and know about these diseases.
10. The Black Plague
This disease is also known as the Black Death caused by bacteria Yersinia pestis that commonly affects wild rodents. However the most recent generation is unaware of the effects of this bacterial disease but it is known as one of the most dangerous bacterial infections. This infection started with rats, transmitting to other animals, then to domestic animals and finally to humans killing more than 100 million individuals. Without treatment this disease can kill almost two thirds of infected individuals within four days.
It is a serious medical condition identified by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers and is caused by Clostridium bacteria. The bacteria live in saliva, dust, soil and manure and can invade the body through a deep cut. The infection causes agonizing tightening of the muscles, generally all over the body and can lead to a condition known as lock jaw making it impossible to open the mouth and to swallow. It is a medical emergency and should be treated immediately.
It is a common worldwide bacterial disease caused by bacterium Salmonella Typhi and is transmitted by the ingestion of water or food contaminated with the feces of an infected person. This disease contains various others name like gastric fever, abdominal typhus, enteric fever and pythogenic fever. Symptoms of this disease develop almost one to three weeks after exposure and vary in severity. The symptoms include fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, malaise, rose-colored spots on the chest, and enlarged liver and spleen. Antibiotics are available for treating this disease.
It is a common sexually transmitted infection in humans caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhea. The common symptoms of this disease in men are burning with penile discharge and urination, the women remain asymptomatic half the time or have pelvic pain and vaginal discharge. If this infection is left untreated then it may extent locally causing inflammation of epididymis, prostate gland, urethral stricture in men and pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Other complications of this infection include meningitis, skin pustules, septic arthritis or endocarditis. It has been an infection that has annoyed various generations of people.
It is an infection of small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms of this disease are watery diarrhea and vomiting and it leads to dehydration and in extreme cases grayish bluish skin. The transmission of this disease is mainly by eating contaminated food or drinking water. The severity of vomiting and diarrhea can cause abrupt dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, and also death in some cases. The primary therapy is oral rehydration therapy if not recovered then intravenous fluids can also be given. It is an exceptionally virulent disease that can affect both adults and children and can kill within hours.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum. The primary mode of transfer of this disease is through sexual contact, it can also be spread from infected mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, causing congenital syphilis, leading to abnormalities or death of the infant. It is a highly contagious infection, the infected individual is often unfamiliar of the disease and unintentionally passes it on to his or her partner.
This illness begins as a painless sore, specifically on mouth, rectum or genitals. It develops in stages and the symptoms vary with stage. Without treatment, it can cause damage in throughout body, can cause problems in women during pregnancy and can also increase the chance of HIV infection. Treatment can aid in future damage but can not reverse or repair the damage that has already occurred. This disease leads to skin eruptions, lesions, hair loss and even death.
It is an infectious bacterial disease that is caused by bacterium named Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most commonly lungs are affected by this disease. The mode of transfer of this disease is from person to person through droplets from the throat and lungs of individuals with active respiratory illness. General sign and symptoms of this disease include fever, night sweats, chills, loss of appetite, weight loss and fatigue. Individuals with active TB must take various types of medications for several months to eliminate this infection and to prevent advancement of antibiotic resistance. Without treatment this disease can be lethal and untreated active disease not only affects the lungs but also invade to other body parts through bloodstream. The complications of this disease include spinal pain, meningitis, joint damage, heart disorders and liver or kidney problems.
3. Legionnaires’ Disease
It is a severe form of pneumonia that is caused by a bacterium named as Legionella. During infection, the bacterium infects macrophages and lung epithelial cells and reproduces intracellularly. Legionnaires’ disease is spread by inhalation of aerosolized water or soil that is contaminated with this bacterium and not spread from person to person. Smokers, people with weakened immune system and older adults are more prone to this disease. Generally this disease develops after two to ten days of exposure and patients experience chills, fever, and cough.
Some patients also feel headache, muscle aches, ataxia, loss of appetite, confusion and other mental changes. If untreated, Legionnaires’ disease can be lethal and therefore prompt treatment with antibiotic should be given, some individuals also experience issues after treatment. This disease can also lead to a number of life threatening complications including respiratory failure, acute kidney failure and life threatening septic shock.
2. Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Pneumonia is an inflammatory lung disease and Pneumococcal Pneumonia is a sort of pneumonia that is caused by bacterium called streptococcus pneumoniae or pneumococcus. This bacterial infection can infect the upper respiratory tract and can expand to the lungs, blood, middle ear or nervous system. It mainly causes disease in children less than 5 years of age or adults having age of 65 years or more. The older people are at high risk of getting severely ill and dying from this infection. In addition, people with lung, liver and chronic heart diseases are also at high risk for acquiring pneumococcal pneumonia.
The mode of transfer of this disease is through contact with individuals who are sick or who carry the bacteria in their throats. Respiratory droplets from the mouth or nose of an infected individual can also be the source of infection. This disease can begin suddenly and the patient feels severe shaking chills followed by high fever, cough, shortness of breath, nausea vomiting, chest pain, headache and muscle aches.
Antibiotics are available to treat the disease and this disease can also be prevented through vaccine that can reduce the chance of acquiring this infection. In almost 30% of individuals with Pneumococcal Pneumonia, the bacteria infect the bloodstream from the lungs and it leads to bacteremia, a very dangerous complication of this infection that can also cause other certain heart issues and lung diseases.
It is a rare but serious bacterial infection that is caused by spore forming bacterium named Bacillus anthracis. Most forms of this acute disease are deadly, and it affects both animals and humans. There are no proves of transmission of anthrax from person to person, but there is possibility that anthrax skin lesions may be communicable through direct connection. Generally, the bacteria enter in the body through a skin wound and the individuals can also acquire the infection by inhaling the spore or ingesting contaminated meal.
In this infection bacteria releases toxin in the blood vessels, while cutting the immune system.It is known to cause severe forms of illness and in various cases, death. This disease is widely renowned due to 2001 anthrax attacks in which anthrax spores were mailed to important personalities and that caused death of five people and 17 people became infected. Signs and symptoms of this disease depend on the mode of infection.
Inhaled anthrax is the rarest but the most deadly and dangerous form of this infection. The symptoms can vary from skin eruptions to vomiting to shock. Early treatment with antibiotics helps in curing most anthrax infections, delay causes lessen chances of survival. An anthrax vaccine is available for humans but it is not recommended for older adults and children. The most severe complication of this infection is hemorrhagic meningitis and death.